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COMMON points AMONG ALL HINDU SAMPRADAYS ,SECTS ETC Topics in Hinduism

1 points | Post submitted by suyash95 37 days ago | 1 comments | viewed 51 times

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  • suyash95 37 days ago | +0 points

    There are 5 key doctrines common to all Hindu Sects

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    1. BRAHMAN—the belief in an Absolute qualified by sat-chit-ananda - space-time-consciousness.This non-conceptual, ineffable Brahman is viewed in different ways by the different sects – some call it Sat, Tat, Iśvara, Paramātma,

    Bhagavan, Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, Ganesha etc.

     

    2 .JĪVĀTMA – the individual Self - a spark, or mode, or ray of BRAHMAN which takes the form of creatures, animals, humans, gods, anti-gods. The Jivatma is characterised by consciousness which is contracted in the various species,is limited in time and space and the ability to enjoy but it is of the same essential nature as Brahman.

     

    3.SAMSĀRA — the cycle of birth-death-rebirth - the ocean of conditioned existence in which we all have our being and in which we are reborn again and again.

     

    4.KARMA — the law of cause and effect, action and reaction - it is Karma that turns the wheel of Samsāra.

     

    5.MOKṢA/NIRVANA — the possibility of attaining release from the cycle of rebirth and reuniting with the Godhead Brahman - the details of this union vary among the sects.

     

     

    According to HINDUISM than, what's the purpose of life?

    There are four purposes to human life.

    Dharma – to be a benevolent and beneficial presence in the world, to live an ethical life aimed at service to others and to the planet.

    Artha – in oder to practice the first goal one has to have finance - so the accumulation of money is important but the professional and means that one adopts must be in accordance with Dharma - i.e. ethical, free of deception and beneficial for other and the planet.

    Kāma – the pursuit of pleasure is natural and enjoyable, having relationship, children, holidays, art, music, entertainment etc are all good so long as they too are done according to Dharma - ethically with harm-minimisation primary.

    Mokṣa – the short term goal is to liberate oneself from mental anxiety and existential suffering here and now. This is done by studying philosophy and psychology and by practicing Yoga and meditation.

    The long term goal (Final Mokṣa or Nirvāṇa) which is not really a goal we can pursue but a worthy hope, is that at some stage we will be liberated from the cycle of rebirth - but this is not in our hands - that depends upon the grace of Mahā-lakṣmī.

    What should we do after we are born on Earth ,What is the ultimate purpose?How mto acheive MOKSHA ?

    All forms of self-identification (asmita) with the mind-body complex are forms of cognitive error (avidya) which is the source of all suffering (duḥkha).


    FOUNDATION OF DHARMA -

    The philosophical foundation if I may address that, is the same in all the DHARMA systems i.e. all schools of Jainism, Hinduism and Buddhism.All Indic philosophical systems begin with the observation of suffering (duḥkha) as a universal existential fact. All beings experience duḥkha and all beings are striving for sukha (happiness). They all then investigate and analyze duḥkha to determine its origin, causes,trajectory and its resolution and there are some minor variations of opinion among the different schools of thought.

    Duḥkha like all technical Sanskrit terms is difficult to translate by a single English word. Duḥ means bad and kha means space. So duḥkha literally means“Bad-space.”

    A comprehensive modern description of Duḥkha is:— Disturbance, irritation, dejection, worry, despair, fear, dread, anguish, anxiety; vulnerability, injury, inability, inferiority; sickness, aging, decay of body and faculties, senility; pain/pleasure; excitement/boredom; deprivation/excess; desire/frustration, suppression; longing/aimlessness; hope/hopelessness; effort, activity, striving/repression; loss, want, insufficiency/satiety; love/lovelessness, friend-lessness; dislike, aversion/attraction; parenthood/childlessness; submission/rebellion; decision/indecisiveness, vacillation, uncertainty. (Francis Story in Suffering, in Vol. II of The Three Basic Facts of Existence.)

    All forms of suffering can be categorized under three broad headings:—

    Adhidaivika — those calamities that arise from the forces of nature, storms, tempests, bush-fires, floods, tsunamis etc.

    Adhibhautika — those forms of suffering which arise due to the elements, heat, cold, birth, growth, hunger, thirst, old-age, sickness and death.

    Adhyātmika — psychological and emotional suffering. The only defense and remedy for the first category is forward planning and a comprehensive insurance policy! The second category can be dealt with and mitigated through education, hard work and training, life-style modification and a good health care policy!

    The third category requires the greatest effort, and the only remedy is the study of the Vedānta which includes both the disciplines of philosophy and psychology, as well as providing an effective therapeutic methodology. It consists of a re-orientation of one’s world view and Self-realization and self-transformation. This is the foundation of Hinduism.

    Acc to Hindu Philosophy-Mankind is engaged in an eternal quest for that “something else” he hopes will bring him happiness, complete and unending. For those individual souls who have sought and found God, the search is over: He is that Something Else.

    So to achieve emancipation from suffering and rebirth (mokṣa) one must ultimately abandon all forms of self-identification as male, female, binary, white, black, brindled, caste, class, nationality, relationship, hobbies, sport etc.

    This freedom from self-identification cannot of course be achieved in one fell swoop but needs to be gradually attenuated through a process of sustained introspection (ātma-vicāra) with the goal of self-realisation (ātma-bodha).

    So everyone - cis-gender, bi-gender, poly-gender, trans-gender, gender-fluid etc. etc ALL have to be renounced as forms of cognitive error.

    So Vedānta is the antithesis of genderism which is the primary form of cognitive error and the source of much conflict and suffering.



    HOW TO LIVE LIFE IS GIVEN BY ESSENCE OF GITA -

    What is the essence of Bhagwad Geeta?The Gītā answers 3 questions:–

    1. Who am I?

    Answer — you are not the mind-body complex with which you identify - you are the eternal Self (ātma) which is a spark of the Divine.

    2. What am I doing here?

    Answer — you are here because of your previously accumulated Karma - you are experiencing the fruit of your actions, and your current decisions to act are determining what you will become in the future.

    3. What should I do next?

    Answer — take control of your life and stop being a victim. You yourself are your own worst enemy and your own best friend.

    Get proactive - work for the benefit of all sentient beings, and in so doing never be attached to the outcomes of your actions - act to the best of your ability. Do all actions as service to the Supreme Being (Krishna).

    Start a spiritual practice (sādhana) based on regular meditation (dhyāna) and cultivate the virtues of non-violence, friendliness, compassion, generosity, equanimity (in good and bad circumstances) and treat everyone (friend & foe) equally without discrimination and prejudice.

    Suffering is due to craving and attachment so give these up if you want to be happy.

    Give up all self-initiated means of achieving your own Liberation from samsāra and surrender to Krishna alone.



    HINDU PRACTICE - there is a paradigm of HINDU PRACTICE - It is known as the Pancha Mahā Yajña. All of us are born with 5 debts (runas) which it is our duty to discharge throughout our lives on earth.

    1. Pitru Runa - debt to the parents which is discharged through Pitru Yajña - honouring them, caring for them, performing their funerals and cherishing their memory.
    2. Deva Runa - debt to the Gods who are the forces which maintain the Universe. Their debt - Deva Yajña - is discharged through making daily offerings to them of water, flowers, incense, fruit etc.
    3. Rishi Runa - debt to the enlightened sages who transmitted the metaphysical teachings of the Vedas for our guidance and benefit. The discharge of this debt is known as Brahma-Yajña because it is so great and consists in study and teaching others.
    4. Manushya Runa. Debt to our society - and to all those who rely upon us for their economic and social well-being. This debt is discharged through Manushya Yajña - which includes all forms of social service, cooperation with others and working towards the improvement and flourishing of everyone else in society. Contributing to disaster relief either through cash or kind.
    5. Bhūta Runa - debt to the environment which is our life support system. Bhūta Yajña includes feeding birds and beasts and caring for the environment - avoiding pollution of the air and water, and ensuring the sustainability of forests, rivers etc.

     These are some basic Steps to connect to that Eternal Divine - Through Gyan (Knowledge),Bhakti (Worship),Jnana (Wisdom n Right Living) n Yoga (RAJ YOGA).Hinduism has three different views based on the evolutionary trajectory of Spiritual development. So in other words most Hindu schools of philosophy teach that one is evolving through the 8, 400,000 species culminating in the Human birth which is the most precious being the launching pad for Nirvāṇa. So rebirth is based upon the dominant mental stream at the time of death (antim-smarana) and is not random.Advaita - non-dualism holds the view that the ātma or Self is provisional and contains the seeds of karma and is finally dissolved into the Totality of Consciousness (Brahman) in the state of Mokṣa. This is the majority view which is not dissimilar to the Buddhist view.The Dualists and Qualified non-dualists hold the view that the final Goal can be one of four options:–

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        1. Sāyujyam - complete dissolution of Self and merging with the Supreme Self (Paramātma)
        2. Sārupyam - transforming into the form of Supreme Being
        3. Sāmīpyam - existing in close and intimate association with God.
        4. Sālokyam - existing in the same realm as God - similar to the Christian or Islam “heaven” but without the hedonistic or sensual delights. 
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