What is the Origin of Untouchability in India?How was untouchability practised in India n in other parts of World?? Persecution

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What is the Origin of Untouchability in India?How was untouchability practised in India n in other parts of World??


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  • suyash95 261 days ago | +0 points

    THEORETICALLY ,It referred to Outcastes-those who fall outside the 4 Varnas.

    The only “outcastes” were criminals doing voluntary penance outside the context of normal society, and they would be

    reinstated once their penance had been completed.

    Those who went against dharma, did crimes that deserve long term punishment (not in jail but social work etc), were outsted by kings. They were asked to live in outskirts of cities and villages. They were not allowed to fetch water from same river/well as others, cannot attend any occassion, not allowed into temple, etc. These were called ‘Panchama’ (5th caste/varna). Initially this punishment was limited to their generation or their lifetime only. After 15–20 years, their next generation was accepted back into original caste. However, the outcasted person will die as outcasted only.

    They were made to do sewage work etc which was not done by others.

    Over a period of time, people from their caste, who did not like these outcastes next generation to comeback, extended the punishment to further generations.

    Reasons could be multiple : like jealousy on that family, lack of next generation labor to do such works (maybe punishments to earlier generation had reduced crime later), or people in power did not want more competition from next generation of outcastes.

    This type of punishment existed in many villages even few decades ago.

    With the arrival of Buddhism,Jainism,Those who ate Meat were outcasted from society and had to live away from main Society.

    Outcastes are referred to in the Dharma Shastras (Law Books) as “panchamas” - or those of the fifth order i.e. outside of the

    four caste system. These are people who were outside society and traditionally did work which was considered as “polluting” -

    such as scavenging — those who removed dead animals from the village and ate them and processed their body parts, leather

    production, butchery, sanitary workers, drain cleaners, those that dealt with the dead – i.e. cremation workers who also acted

    as executioners in ancient India (chandalas). There were also chandalas who bred and ate dogs and were known as svapakas.

    A person or community that gave up these traditionally polluting jobs and took to other professions, should no longer have been treated as harshly as suggested by these verses.For this he would have to approach the King.

    An interesting feature of this reported by several British Officers during the Raj - is that theirs was the first unionization of monopolized labour (long before Marx). And that all the sweepers and scavengers in the cantonment had to be treated with respect because any insult or mistreatment would result in a caste strike - no rubbish would be removed and no sweeping would be done until an apology and redress was offered. If one sweeper went on strike no one would offer to do his work and all would boycott the offender so it was impossible to sack a sweeper.

    The same would happen with those Dalits who removed carcasses from the village - no caste Hindu would touch a carcass and after a few days in 40 degrees temperature the stench would be unbearable

    Untouchability is a hot-button, a buzz-word.The Sanskrit term is acyuta which is one of the names of Krishna - (just joking a play on the Hindi word acūta). The real Sanskrit term is aspṛśya — which is a nuanced concept.

    The so-called “untouchables” were people who traditionally performed the dirtiest jobs so not only were they not touched (like everyone else) they were made to keep a ‘respectable’ distance, and to live outside of the villages.

    This practice could have been justified on the basis of infection control and disease transmission (since frequent contact with disease bearing organisms results in immunity and the person becomes a carrier - i.e. hepatitis.)

    It was not unique to Hindu Civilization,It was present everywhere in world..Hygiene rules were extremely strict at that time. There were no antibiotics so infections meant death. Ppl might have wanted social distancing from ppl with occupations involving dead animals, corpses, meat, sewage. Some might have taken all this to extremes, who knows?

    The British-rule waged a propaganda war against Bharat's Sanatan culture & bribed some people in important ranks to present & propagate it in distorted form .Chhua-chhoot was given a very different connotation by goras and left-liberal-intellectuals

    Indian social practises including social distancing from meat handlers to avoid spread of disease. It never experienced the kinds of plagues and black deaths which were rampant in Europe in the middle ages.

    Back in the old days before the discovery of the germ theory of disease it made a lot of sense. Disease is spread by touch, by water and by droplets - so before detergents and disinfectants; non-touch technique, not eating off the same plates and dishes, disposable banana leaf vessels, eating by hand, not eating the food cooked by strangers, not allowing people into the kitchen, not allowing certain people to draw water from the same well etc. etc. etc. made perfect sense but then it was taken to absurd degrees by some purists. The rules of purity and impurity are very extensive and far too many and varied to discuss in a single post, and since they are redundant and most young Hindus today have no idea about them, there is no point in reviving them for public display! Most of the rules regarding purity and impurity have been discarded nowadays and are only still upheld by a minority of very orthodox Brahmins. P.S. According to the Dharma Shastras the cook should have a shaven head and face, should cover his mouth, should wear washed clothes and wash his hands regularly.

    Untouchables” or aspṛśya in Sanskrit are those people who technically work in highly unhygienic jobs - i.e. sanitary workers and those that work with dead bodies of humans and animals or deal with any effluence from the human body.

    Thousands of years ago before the discovery of bacteria, observation established that certain people who worked in highly contaminated and toxic environments had an immunity to certain diseases but could act as vectors (transmitters). So these unfortunate folks were excluded from social contact which primarily meant dealing with food, entering people’s homes and generally “hanging out.”

    They were assigned a place outside the village and could only enter the village on “business” i.e. to remove carcasses of dead animals which they then took away and processed - i.e. making leather for shoes, processing the bones etc and including eating them.By the way even doctors were considered “untouchable” because to test for diabetes they had to taste the urine of the patient! So doctors were not to be found on guest lists. Nurses are in almost every survey done in the west, among the most respected of all professions - ranking even higher than doctors and lawyers (understandably so in the latter case!) - but from a caste hierarchy perspective are “untouchable” because they deal with sickness and death and the effluent of patients. In caste-ridden society this problem was solved by having the “jemedars” actually deal with the personal hygiene of the patients while the nurses administered medications.

    It is also important to note that even those Brahmins who perform funeral ceremonies (mahāpātras) are considered as “untouchable” by all castes even the untouchables themselves! This is why there is a division between those priests who perform auspicious ceremonies (weddings, births, house-blessings etc.) and those that deal with cremations and Shrāddhas. Orthodox Brahmins would never invite a funeral priest to perform their daughter’s wedding!

    But that was very small section of population,that was less than 1%.With Islamic invasion.

    Although untouchables are at the bottom of the social hierarchy they can be at the top of the power hierarchy. Take for example the Doms of Varanasi — they are a caste which has the monopoly of the cremation industry and as such are immensely powerful. The Dom Rājā used to be a very wealthy and powerful man! Even Brahmins treat him with the utmost respect and deference since the fire for cremations has to come from his hearth only. There are many cases in the past in which untouchables in a village, because of their narrowly focused profession would go on strike for a slight insult and hold the whole village to ransom.

    Most of Hindu customs regarding food and water and eating and drinking are based on sound hygienic principles - in the Dharma Shastras there are rules for cooks about bathing and washing hands before food preparation, covering of the mouth, clipping nails and shaving heads and beards etc. Even Sudras are permitted to work in kitchens as long as they are supervised regarding the rules of hygiene. Most Hindus would know about never drinking water from the same cup that someone else lips have touched or eating food that is left-over (ucchiṣṭa/jhūṭa/ecchil) — all basic hygiene.

    The main Perpertrators who introduced Untouchability in India on a mass scale -Muslims r given a clear cut free pass.Bathrooms n toilets were discovered after 1900. Hindus used slippers made of wood.The Hindu considered the use of leather as impure from the Sanatan period. Remember, Vedic saint or Vedic people used to wear wooden stands on their feet, why? Because the skin was not used by the Hindu at all! Chamar and Bhangi Castes were made by Muslims, ...... why?

    the Muslim army and the people needed leather, so the war prisoners were pushed into the leather work.The People of these Castes were sifled because of their peeling the skin of the cow, and they became untouchables today. It was not because of the outlying caste but because of their abhorrent actions. Who persecuted Jaatis known as Dalits today? For thousands of years, Hindus have had a tradition of open defecation.The toilets inside the house were considered impure. Even today, people in the village countryside do not make toilets in the house, for example, you watch the toilet a love story. Whereas during the Muslim period, Muslims women did not go out in the open because of the veil system! and Muslimms have no such provision of open defecation Therefore, Muslims used to build toilets inside their homes and those who were used to do scavenging were called scavengers. They became untouchable because of their low susders.

    The simple fact is so called Chamar ,Bhangi Castes are not the creation of Hinduism or Brahmins. This is a conspiracy to destroy Hindu civilization and culture and all this has been done only by the Muslims with the Left .The British rule also had a huge role in this,While creating new cities,they expanded this problem massively.India became independent in 1947 ,Hindus were never in Actual power for last 1000 years,Atleast 100 years should be given to them for recovery.

    The British while making new cities withour proper arrangements also advacned this

    I have not come across a single mass epidemic in India before the British. And it was the Islamic invasions which brought bubonic plague from Central Asia. Ancient India idealised vegetarianism and never had serious trysts with infectious diseases like Europe & China, it appears.

    Plague was rampant during and after the Delhi Sultanate. One could say it followed their armies. Things were even worse in the Mughal era. Surat and Agra were among the worst hit. Some British correspondences speak of over a thousand casualties a day in peak winter.

    [image]

    A map of the cities most effected by plague in 17th century Mughal India. Epidemics often followed and exacerbated famine, which was also becoming more frequent due to wars and oppressive administration. Health and Disease in Medieval India- Enyatullah Khan & M. Parwez

    [image]

    Famous example is Malaria which British gifted to African Tribes. Despite having so many mosquitoes in grasslands of Africa they never had malaria based deaths but millions died because British were carriers during 1800s.

    Indians also had quite a system of social segregation around eating, drinking habits of people/castes; also personal hygiene such as bathing, not using right hand. Such things may have also helped. restrictions were stronger as v go frm punjab to south and east. Any correlation?

    There were very few community of people who were eating meat. They were separated from society and that led to un-touchability practice. People don't think back why such practices were existed in ancient India

    Plague and cholera were brought to new world by westerners that wiped out entire native American population

    ROLE OF DEADLY EPIDEMICS -

    Patients quarantined at a detention center during outbreak of Third Pandemic Plague. Karachi(British India), 1897. The Third Pandemic plague began in Yunnan(China). It entered India through British Ships carrying opium from Hong Kong It consumed 10 million lives in India

    [image]

    Another one happened during 1918.

    The deadly Spanish Flu, which slipped in through a ship of returning soldiers that docked in Bombay ...The deadly Spanish Flu, which slipped in through a ship of returning soldiers that docked in Bombay ...

    Read more at

    https://www.mynation.com/video/india-news/why-spanish-flu-of-1918-matters-in-india-s-coronavirus-war-q7e7tc

    The Black Death killed 60 PERCENT of Europe.

    https://www.historytoday.com/archive/black-death-greatest-catastrophe-ever

    [image]

    The 19th century epidemic killed at least 10 million people in India, which would roughly be 5%? There were 4 cholera epidemics in India in the 19th and early 20th century, how many died is unknown.

    Ancient Hindu norms of social distancing probably got set when groups of people consistently failed to follow the standards required for safety and hygiene over centuries when plague, smallpox and cholera outbreaks were rampant, endemic or recurrent

    During 1918 influenza pandemic colonial British administrators ran away to the secluded hill stations. Around 6% of Indian population died, more than the total World War I deaths in the world. In today’s terms that would be more than 70 million deaths.Couple this with massive droughts n Famines which destroyed Many Hindu JAATIS,,Criminal Tribes Act,Mass Killings of Indians which British suspected were involved in 1857 Revolt.

    it were the British rulers who started discharging sewers of towns like Varanasi, Patna, Kanpur, Munger into Ganga in the 19th century. Before that, we at least didn't have this problem. For this, they sometimes used the existing canals used for irrigating agricultural fields.

    Similarly, the modern leather factories near Kanpur are a legacy of the British. Though the Muslim invaders desecrated a lot of Hindu sites, temples and symbols, at least they left our rivers alone. Even a bigot like Aurangzeb used to dring Ganga water and he had several people engaged in carrying fresh Ganga water to wherever he was in the subcontinent.

    British not only polluted Indian rivers but their own rivers as well.For example, River Thames that flows through London was so polluted that it was declared biologically dead. From 1830 to 1860 tens of thousands of people died of cholera as a result of the pollution in the Thames. Sewage was being discharged directly into the Thames. Despite the foul smell, people continued to wash and bathe and drink from the river, because lower income people of London had no other way. Effective treatment of Thames only began after World War 2 and now River thames is one of the most cleanest rivers in the world. People catch fish and dive into it.

    People don't know about untouchables in Japan. It's like India2.0 Concept of Purity (inner and outer) and butchers, Tanners, sanitation workers become untouchable.

    [image]

    Throughout history, the task of handling wastes and faeces has never been a dignified one. Until as late as the 20th century, human excrement had to be removed physically from cesspits and privies in Europe. The European lower-caste people who did the dirty job were called gongfermours (French) or gong farmers in English. Do you think they were treated with respect and allowed to mingle freely with the upper echelons of society?

    Gong farmers or gongfermours in Europe were tasked with digging out and removing human excrement from privies and cesspits.

    The gong farmers of England were only allowed to work at night, so they were also called nightmen. They came into respectable neighbourhoods in the dead of the night, emptied cesspits and carted away the wastes to the boundaries of the cities. They were required to live in certain areas at the fringes of the city and could not enter the city during day-time. There were severe penalties for breaking this rule. Even after water closets arrived on the scene, their contents flowed into cesspits for a long time and needed to be cleaned out by nightmen

    UNTOUCHABILITY in Other Countries

    Untouchability in France: How the Cagots - European ‘untouchables’ - were cruelly abused as second-class citizens for at least 1000 years, mainly in the Pyrenees, but also in neighbouring regions along the western French coast, up to Brittany.

    https://t.co/CCyEs9RlIh?amp=1

    The Cagots: untouchable pariahs, oppressed in France for 1000 years.

    "The French are ashamed of what they did to them, the Cagots are ashamed of what they were. That is why no one, these days, will confess they are of Cagot descent."

    https://t.co/CdFRywFKVq?amp=1

    The Gongfermours: Untouchables of Tudor-era England.

    They were permitted to live only in specified areas, only allowed to work at night, between 9pm and 5am.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gong_farmer

    The Spanish "Sociedad de Castas" - where the word "caste" originates from.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casta

    The Baekjeong/Paekjong: an "untouchable” minority group of Korea.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baekjeong

    https://t.co/ueejNn7ovB?amp=1

    The Cheonmin: "vulgar commoners," the lowest caste of commoners in dynastical Korea.

    https://seoulfi.wordpress.com/2015/01/04/cheonmin-koreas-tradition-of-slavery-lives-on-in-the-south-part-1/

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheonmin

    The Al-Akhdam or Al-Muhamasheen, meaning "servant" in Arabic, are considered to be at the very bottom of the supposedly abolished caste ladder, are socially segregated, and are mostly confined to menial jobs in Yemen's major cities.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Akhdam

    The Tanka people: Chinese boat people or sea gypsies. An outcaste ethnic group.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanka_people

    The Hazaras of Afghanistan. Of Eastern Asian ethnicity, possibly descended from Mongol invaders from when Genghis Khan invaded northern India (he did not cross the Indus).

    Severely persecuted & marginalized for centuries.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazaras

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persecution_of_Hazara_people

    Slavery has a long history in England. It was heriditary, children of slaves were also slaves.

    More than 10% of England's population were slaves during the reign of William the Conqueror.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Britain

    In BUDDHIST Tibet n Ladakh, The untouchables in Buddhist regions, were known as Ragyappa, who lived in isolated ghettos, and their occupation was to remove corpses (human or animal) and dispose of sewage.

    Worldwide, until modern systems of transporting and handling sewage and sludge came into existence, workers in this sector were ostracized from society. Until modern cities became populated with millions of migrants that helped to increase diversity and heterogeneity, communities were close-knit and exclusionary.

    Untouchability has not been a uniform and common phenomenon all across India. Also, it is clear that untouchability is much more recent in India’s history compared to all the Dharmashastras. Of course, there were people who worked with dead bodies, which made them socially isolated, but this absolute untouchability is very likely a late medieval phenomenon. I’ve never said that untouchability was never there or that it was not bad. But this is not unique to Indian society. Even in ancient and medieval European societies, there were many occupations such as cleaners and executioners who were needed but who were isolated because of their occupation. Only modern technological improvements have been able to reduce this stigma of uncleanliness associated with particular occupations

    Black Plague wiped out more than 50% of European Population in Europe

    [reply]
    • jay 261 days ago | +0 points

      HI, bro you always provide nice articles and links. More power to you :) 

      Also you can use the Rich text editor to make it shine more. 

      Thank you thumbsup

      [reply]
  • suyash95 261 days ago | +0 points

    THEORETICALLY ,It referred to Outcastes-those who fall outside the 4 Varnas.

    The only “outcastes” were criminals doing voluntary penance outside the context of normal society, and they would be reinstated once their penance had been completed.Those who went against dharma, did crimes that deserve long term punishment (not in jail but social work etc), were outsted by kings. They were asked to live in outskirts of cities and villages. They were not allowed to fetch water from same river/well as others, cannot attend any occassion, not allowed into temple, etc. These were called ‘Panchama’ (5th caste/varna). Initially this punishment was limited to their generation or their lifetime only. After 15–20 years, their next generation was accepted back into original caste. However, the outcasted person will die as outcasted only.

    They were made to do sewage work etc which was not done by others.Over a period of time, people from their caste, who did not like these outcastes next generation to comeback, extended the punishment to further generations.Reasons could be multiple : like jealousy on that family, lack of next generation labor to do such works (maybe punishments to earlier generation had reduced crime later), or people in power did not want more competition from next generation of outcastes.

    This type of punishment existed in many villages even few decades ago.

    With the arrival of Buddhism,Jainism,Those who ate Meat were outcasted from society and had to live away from main Society.Outcastes are referred to in the Dharma Shastras (Law Books) as “panchamas” - or those of the fifth order i.e. outside of the four caste system. These are people who were outside society and traditionally did work which was considered as “polluting” - such as scavenging — those who removed dead animals from the village and ate them and processed their body parts, leather , production, butchery, sanitary workers, drain cleaners, those that dealt with the dead – i.e. cremation workers who also acted as executioners in ancient India (chandalas). There were also chandalas who bred and ate dogs and were known as svapakas.


    A person or community that gave up these traditionally polluting jobs and took to other professions, should no longer have been treated as harshly as suggested by these verses.For this he would have to approach the King.


    An interesting feature of this reported by several British Officers during the Raj - is that theirs was the first unionization of monopolized labour (long before Marx). And that all the sweepers and scavengers in the cantonment had to be treated with respect because any insult or mistreatment would result in a caste strike - no rubbish would be removed and no sweeping would be done until an apology and redress was offered. If one sweeper went on strike no one would offer to do his work and all would boycott the offender so it was impossible to sack a sweeper.The same would happen with those Dalits who removed carcasses from the village - no caste Hindu would touch a carcass and after a few days in 40 degrees temperature the stench would be unbearable


    Untouchability is a hot-button, a buzz-word.The Sanskrit term is acyuta which is one of the names of Krishna - (just joking a play on the Hindi word acūta). The real Sanskrit term is aspṛśya — which is a nuanced concept..The so-called “untouchables” were people who traditionally performed the dirtiest jobs so not only were they not touched (like everyone else) they were made to keep a ‘respectable’ distance, and to live outside of the villages..This practice could have been justified on the basis of infection control and disease transmission (since frequent contact with disease bearing organisms results in immunity and the person becomes a carrier - i.e. hepatitis.)


    It was not unique to Hindu Civilization,It was present everywhere in world..Hygiene rules were extremely strict at that time. There were no antibiotics so infections meant death. Ppl might have wanted social distancing from ppl with occupations involving dead animals, corpses, meat, sewage. Some might have taken all this to extremes, who knows?


    The British-rule waged a propaganda war against Bharat's Sanatan culture & bribed some people in important ranks to present & propagate it in distorted form .Chhua-chhoot was given a very different connotation by goras and left-liberal-intellectuals..Indian social practises including social distancing from meat handlers to avoid spread of disease. It never experienced the kinds of plagues and black deaths which were rampant in Europe in the middle ages.


    Back in the old days before the discovery of the germ theory of disease it made a lot of sense. Disease is spread by touch, by water and by droplets - so before detergents and disinfectants; non-touch technique, not eating off the same plates and dishes, disposable banana leaf vessels, eating by hand, not eating the food cooked by strangers, not allowing people into the kitchen, not allowing certain people to draw water from the same well etc. etc. etc. made perfect sense but then it was taken to absurd degrees by some purists. The rules of purity and impurity are very extensive and far too many and varied to discuss in a single post, and since they are redundant and most young Hindus today have no idea about them, there is no point in reviving them for public display! Most of the rules regarding purity and impurity have been discarded nowadays and are only still upheld by a minority of very orthodox Brahmins. P.S. According to the Dharma Shastras the cook should have a shaven head and face, should cover his mouth, should wear washed clothes and wash his hands regularly.


    Untouchables” or aspṛśya in Sanskrit are those people who technically work in highly unhygienic jobs - i.e. sanitary workers and those that work with dead bodies of humans and animals or deal with any effluence from the human body.

    Thousands of years ago before the discovery of bacteria, observation established that certain people who worked in highly contaminated and toxic environments had an immunity to certain diseases but could act as vectors (transmitters). So these unfortunate folks were excluded from social contact which primarily meant dealing with food, entering people’s homes and generally “hanging out.”


    They were assigned a place outside the village and could only enter the village on “business” i.e. to remove carcasses of dead animals which they then took away and processed - i.e. making leather for shoes, processing the bones etc and including eating them.By the way even doctors were considered “untouchable” because to test for diabetes they had to taste the urine of the patient! So doctors were not to be found on guest lists. Nurses are in almost every survey done in the west, among the most respected of all professions - ranking even higher than doctors and lawyers (understandably so in the latter case!) - but from a caste hierarchy perspective are “untouchable” because they deal with sickness and death and the effluent of patients. In caste-ridden society this problem was solved by having the “jemedars” actually deal with the personal hygiene of the patients while the nurses administered medications.


    It is also important to note that even those Brahmins who perform funeral ceremonies (mahāpātras) are considered as “untouchable” by all castes even the untouchables themselves! This is why there is a division between those priests who perform auspicious ceremonies (weddings, births, house-blessings etc.) and those that deal with cremations and Shrāddhas. Orthodox Brahmins would never invite a funeral priest to perform their daughter’s wedding!


    But that was very small section of population,that was less than 1%.With Islamic invasion.,everything changed

    Although untouchables are at the bottom of the social hierarchy they can be at the top of the power hierarchy. Take for example the Doms of Varanasi — they are a caste which has the monopoly of the cremation industry and as such are immensely powerful. The Dom Rājā used to be a very wealthy and powerful man! Even Brahmins treat him with the utmost respect and deference since the fire for cremations has to come from his hearth only. There are many cases in the past in which untouchables in a village, because of their narrowly focused profession would go on strike for a slight insult and hold the whole village to ransom.


    Most of Hindu customs regarding food and water and eating and drinking are based on sound hygienic principles - in the Dharma Shastras there are rules for cooks about bathing and washing hands before food preparation, covering of the mouth, clipping nails and shaving heads and beards etc. Even Sudras are permitted to work in kitchens as long as they are supervised regarding the rules of hygiene. Most Hindus would know about never drinking water from the same cup that someone else lips have touched or eating food that is left-over (ucchiṣṭa/jhūṭa/ecchil) — all basic hygiene.


    The main Perpertrators who introduced Untouchability in India on a mass scale -Muslims r given a clear cut free pass.Bathrooms n toilets were discovered after 1900. Hindus used slippers made of wood.The Hindu considered the use of leather as impure from the Sanatan period. Remember, Vedic saint or Vedic people used to wear wooden stands on their feet, why? Because the skin was not used by the Hindu at all! Chamar and Bhangi Castes were made by Muslims, ...... why?


    the Muslim army and the people needed leather, so the war prisoners were pushed into the leather work.The People of these Castes were sifled because of their peeling the skin of the cow, and they became untouchables today. It was not because of the outlying caste but because of their abhorrent actions. Who persecuted Jaatis known as Dalits today? For thousands of years, Hindus have had a tradition of open defecation.The toilets inside the house were considered impure. Even today, people in the village countryside do not make toilets in the house, for example, you watch the toilet a love story. Whereas during the Muslim period, Muslims women did not go out in the open because of the veil system! and Muslimms have no such provision of open defecation Therefore, Muslims used to build toilets inside their homes and those who were used to do scavenging were called scavengers. They became untouchable because of their low susders.


    The simple fact is so called Chamar ,Bhangi Castes are not the creation of Hinduism or Brahmins. This is a conspiracy to destroy Hindu civilization and culture and all this has been done only by the Muslims with the Left .The British rule also had a huge role in this,While creating new cities,they expanded this problem massively.India became independent in 1947 ,Hindus were never in Actual power for last 1000 years,Atleast 100 years should be given to them for recovery

    .

    The British while making new cities withour proper arrangements also advacned this

    I have not come across a single mass epidemic in India before the British. And it was the Islamic invasions which brought bubonic plague from Central Asia. Ancient India idealised vegetarianism and never had serious trysts with infectious diseases like Europe & China, it appears.


    Plague was rampant during and after the Delhi Sultanate. One could say it followed their armies. Things were even worse in the Mughal era. Surat and Agra were among the worst hit. Some British correspondences speak of over a thousand casualties a day in peak winter.


    [image]


    A map of the cities most effected by plague in 17th century Mughal India. Epidemics often followed and exacerbated famine, which was also becoming more frequent due to wars and oppressive administration. Health and Disease in Medieval India- Enyatullah Khan & M. Parwez

    [image]


    Famous example is Malaria which British gifted to African Tribes. Despite having so many mosquitoes in grasslands of Africa they never had malaria based deaths but millions died because British were carriers during 1800s.


    Indians also had quite a system of social segregation around eating, drinking habits of people/castes; also personal hygiene such as bathing, not using right hand. Such things may have also helped. restrictions were stronger as v go frm punjab to south and east. Any correlation?


    There were very few community of people who were eating meat. They were separated from society and that led to un-touchability practice. People don't think back why such practices were existed in ancient India


    Plague and cholera were brought to new world by westerners that wiped out entire native American population


    ROLE OF DEADLY EPIDEMICS -

    Patients quarantined at a detention center during outbreak of Third Pandemic Plague. Karachi(British India), 1897. The Third Pandemic plague began in Yunnan(China). It entered India through British Ships carrying opium from Hong Kong It consumed 10 million lives in India

    [image]

    Another one happened during 1918.

    The deadly Spanish Flu, which slipped in through a ship of returning soldiers that docked in Bombay ...The deadly Spanish Flu, which slipped in through a ship of returning soldiers that docked in Bombay ...

    Read more at

    https://www.mynation.com/video/india-news/why-spanish-flu-of-1918-matters-in-india-s-coronavirus-war-q7e7tc

    The Black Death killed 60 PERCENT of Europe.

    https://www.historytoday.com/archive/black-death-greatest-catastrophe-ever

    [image]

    The 19th century epidemic killed at least 10 million people in India, which would roughly be 5%? There were 4 cholera epidemics in India in the 19th and early 20th century, how many died is unknown.


    Ancient Hindu norms of social distancing probably got set when groups of people consistently failed to follow the standards required for safety and hygiene over centuries when plague, smallpox and cholera outbreaks were rampant, endemic or recurrent


    During 1918 influenza pandemic colonial British administrators ran away to the secluded hill stations. Around 6% of Indian population died, more than the total World War I deaths in the world. In today’s terms that would be more than 70 million deaths.Couple this with massive droughts n Famines which destroyed Many Hindu JAATIS,,Criminal Tribes Act,Mass Killings of Indians which British suspected were involved in 1857 Revolt.


    it were the British rulers who started discharging sewers of towns like Varanasi, Patna, Kanpur, Munger into Ganga in the 19th century. Before that, we at least didn't have this problem. For this, they sometimes used the existing canals used for irrigating agricultural fields.


    Similarly, the modern leather factories near Kanpur are a legacy of the British. Though the Muslim invaders desecrated a lot of Hindu sites, temples and symbols, at least they left our rivers alone. Even a bigot like Aurangzeb used to dring Ganga water and he had several people engaged in carrying fresh Ganga water to wherever he was in the subcontinent.


    British not only polluted Indian rivers but their own rivers as well.For example, River Thames that flows through London was so polluted that it was declared biologically dead. From 1830 to 1860 tens of thousands of people died of cholera as a result of the pollution in the Thames. Sewage was being discharged directly into the Thames. Despite the foul smell, people continued to wash and bathe and drink from the river, because lower income people of London had no other way. Effective treatment of Thames only began after World War 2 and now River thames is one of the most cleanest rivers in the world. People catch fish and dive into it.


    People don't know about untouchables in Japan. It's like India2.0 Concept of Purity (inner and outer) and butchers, Tanners, sanitation workers become untouchable.

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    Throughout history, the task of handling wastes and faeces has never been a dignified one. Until as late as the 20th century, human excrement had to be removed physically from cesspits and privies in Europe. The European lower-caste people who did the dirty job were called gongfermours (French) or gong farmers in English. Do you think they were treated with respect and allowed to mingle freely with the upper echelons of society?


    Gong farmers or gongfermours in Europe were tasked with digging out and removing human excrement from privies and cesspits.


    The gong farmers of England were only allowed to work at night, so they were also called nightmen. They came into respectable neighbourhoods in the dead of the night, emptied cesspits and carted away the wastes to the boundaries of the cities. They were required to live in certain areas at the fringes of the city and could not enter the city during day-time. There were severe penalties for breaking this rule. Even after water closets arrived on the scene, their contents flowed into cesspits for a long time and needed to be cleaned out by nightmen


    UNTOUCHABILITY in Other Countries

    Untouchability in France: How the Cagots - European ‘untouchables’ - were cruelly abused as second-class citizens for at least 1000 years, mainly in the Pyrenees, but also in neighbouring regions along the western French coast, up to Brittany.

    https://t.co/CCyEs9RlIh?amp=1

    The Cagots: untouchable pariahs, oppressed in France for 1000 years.

    "The French are ashamed of what they did to them, the Cagots are ashamed of what they were. That is why no one, these days, will confess they are of Cagot descent."

    https://t.co/CdFRywFKVq?amp=1


    The Gongfermours: Untouchables of Tudor-era England.

    They were permitted to live only in specified areas, only allowed to work at night, between 9pm and 5am.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gong_farmer


    The Spanish "Sociedad de Castas" - where the word "caste" originates from.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casta


    The Baekjeong/Paekjong: an "untouchable” minority group of Korea.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baekjeong

    https://t.co/ueejNn7ovB?amp=1


    The Cheonmin: "vulgar commoners," the lowest caste of commoners in dynastical Korea.

    https://seoulfi.wordpress.com/2015/01/04/cheonmin-koreas-tradition-of-slavery-lives-on-in-the-south-part-1/

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheonmin


    The Al-Akhdam or Al-Muhamasheen, meaning "servant" in Arabic, are considered to be at the very bottom of the supposedly abolished caste ladder, are socially segregated, and are mostly confined to menial jobs in Yemen's major cities.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Akhdam


    The Tanka people: Chinese boat people or sea gypsies. An outcaste ethnic group.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanka_people


    The Hazaras of Afghanistan. Of Eastern Asian ethnicity, possibly descended from Mongol invaders from when Genghis Khan invaded northern India (he did not cross the Indus).

    Severely persecuted & marginalized for centuries.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazaras

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persecution_of_Hazara_people


    Slavery has a long history in England. It was heriditary, children of slaves were also slaves.

    More than 10% of England's population were slaves during the reign of William the Conqueror.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Britain


    In BUDDHIST Tibet n Ladakh, The untouchables in Buddhist regions, were known as Ragyappa, who lived in isolated ghettos, and their occupation was to remove corpses (human or animal) and dispose of sewage.The untouchables in Buddhist regions, were known as Ragyappa, who lived in isolated ghettos, and their occupation was to remove corpses (human or animal) and dispose of sewage.


    Worldwide, until modern systems of transporting and handling sewage and sludge came into existence, workers in this sector were ostracized from society. Until modern cities became populated with millions of migrants that helped to increase diversity and heterogeneity, communities were close-knit and exclusionary.

    Untouchability has not been a uniform and common phenomenon all across India. Also, it is clear that untouchability is much more recent in India’s history compared to all the Dharmashastras. Of course, there were people who worked with dead bodies, which made them socially isolated, but this absolute untouchability is very likely a late medieval phenomenon. I’ve never said that untouchability was never there or that it was not bad. But this is not unique to Indian society. Even in ancient and medieval European societies, there were many occupations such as cleaners and executioners who were needed but who were isolated because of their occupation. Only modern technological improvements have been able to reduce this stigma of uncleanliness associated with particular occupations

    Black Plague wiped out more than 50% of European Population in Europe

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  • suyash95 234 days ago | +0 points

    Untouchability in India Touching is about creating and granting personal space. For example, Indian way of greeting a woman respects her personal space, unlike culture in many western countries.All humans were granted personal space in hinduism.

     A military general can’t violate personal space of a humble woman. Number of sexual offenses were very less. This is also granted intra family. Being human centered it has a hygienic aspect as well.In 20th century this got confused with 

    (1) toilet cleaning (2) class warfare (3) slavery alike ….

    However these were not typical indian problems. India didn’t have slavery, the toilet cleaning is a global problem in 19th century, not a ancient indian problem.Existence of historical scheduled caste communities - ability to have family, community, organization - indicate general lack of slavery, serfdom or oppression in India.Most of the shudra communities in fact managed huge chunks of economy in service/manufacturing/cottage industry/arts etc, many cases with monopoly.So right to body as a concept would be existing in ancient india. In a functioning society these would be so normal that few would make a issue why one is not given a hug! Early secular Travel visitors at times didn’t note these as matters worth noticing.

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